The Litchfield Council area is located in the top end of the Northern Territory, between 10 and 60 kilometres east of the Darwin CBD. The Litchfield Council area is bounded by Van Diemen Gulf and the Timor Sea in the north, the Adelaide River and Unincorporated Northern Territory in the east, the Coomalie Community Government Council area in the south, Unincorporated Northern Territory in the south-east, and the City of Palmerston and the City of Darwin in the west.
The Litchfield Council area includes the localities of Acacia Hills, Bees Creek, Berry Springs, Blackmore, Black Jungle, Channel Island, Coolalinga, Daly, Darwin River, Fly Creek, Freds Pass, Girraween, Glyde Point, Gunn Point, Herbert, Holtze, Howard Springs, Hughes, Humpty Doo, Knuckey Lagoon, Koolpinyah, Lambells Lagoon, Livingstone, Lloyd Creek, Manton, McMinns Lagoon, Micket Creek, Middle Point, Murrumujuk, Noonamah, Shoal Bay, Southport, Tumbling Waters, Virginia, Wak Wak, Weddell and Wickham.
The Litchfield Council area is predominantly rural and rural-residential, with some small indigenous communities, a defence area and a prison. The main townships are Howard Springs and Humpty Doo, which include residential, commercial and industrial land use. Rural land is used mainly for agriculture (particularly beef cattle farming) and horticulture, with some conservation areas. Tourism is also an important industry. The Council area encompasses a total land area of about 2,900 square kilometres, including coastal and riverine areas, rainforests and lagoons.
Litchfield Council was named after Frederick Henry Litchfield, a member of an early survey and settlement party.
The original inhabitants of the Litchfield Council area were the Larrakia, Woolner and Djowei Aboriginal people.
Traditionally indigenous people lived in the area, and continue to do so, often in small communities. European settlement dates from 1864 when the area was first surveyed, although population was minimal, with land being used mainly for agricultural and pastoral purposes. Some growth took place during the 1870s and 1880s, spurred by the construction of the Overland Telegraph Line and the goldrush. During WWII a military camp operated at Howard Springs, with war offensive launched from several airstrips in the area. More substantial growth occurred from the post-war years, particularly from the 1970s. The population increased steadily from the early 1990s. Some of this population growth is due to the establishment of the Robertson Barracks (army base) in 1992, which accommodates about 3,500 people, and the opening of the Darwin Correctional Centre in 2014, which accommodates about 1,000 people.
Major features of the Litchfield Council area include Berry Springs Nature Park, Howard Springs Nature Park, Blackmore River Conservation Reserve, Channel Island Conservation Reserve, Fogg Dam Conservation Reserve, Knuckey Lagoons Conservation Reserve, Harrison Dam Conservation Area, Melacca Swamp Conservation Area, Tree Point Conservation Area, Shoal Bay Coastal Reserve, Howard Springs Hunting Reserve, Freds Pass Reserve, Robertson Barracks, Darwin Correctional Centre, part of the Darwin River Dam, McMinns Lagoon, Window on the Wetlands, Territory Wildlife Park, The Didgeridoo Hut and Art Gallery, Humpty Doo and Rural Area Golf Club, Palmerston Regional Hospital, Crazy Acres Mango Farm & Cafe, Mick’s Whips, Jenny’s Orchid Garden and The Big Boxing Crocodile.
The Litchfield Council area is served by the Stuart Highway and the Arnhem Highway.
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